References for Hormonal and RISUG

1)      Jones, Richard, and Kristin Lopez. Human Reproductive Biology. 3rd. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 2006. Print)      Roth, M, and J Amory. “Pharmacologic Development of Male Hormonal Contraceptive Agents.” Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 89.1 (2010): 133-136

3)      World Health Organization. Contraceptive efficacy of testosterone-induced azoospermia and oligozoospermia in normal men. Fertil. Steril. 65, 821–829 (1996)

4)      spermatogenesis. Art. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Web. 27 Mar. 2011. <>. Figure 1

5)      World Health Organization. Contraceptive efficacy of testosterone-induced azoospermia and oligozoospermia in normal men. Fertil. Steril. 65, 821–829

6)      Gu, Y.Q. et al. A multicenter contraceptive efficacy study of injectable testosterone undecanoate in healthy Chinese men. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88, 562–568 (2003)

7)      Gu, Y. et al. Multicenter contraceptive efficacy trial of injectable testosterone undecanoate in Chinese men. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 94, 1910–1915 (2009).

8)      Köhn, FM; Schill, WB (Nov 2003). “A new oral testosterone undecanoate formulation.”. World J Urol 21 (5): 311–5

9)      Mommers, E. et al. Male hormonal contraception: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 93, 2572–2580 (2008).

10)  Gu, Y.Q. et al. Male hormonal contraception: effects of injections of testosterone undecanoate and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate at eight-week intervals in Chinese men. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 89, 2254–2262 (2004).

11)  Awoniyi, CA (1994). “GnRH immunization and male infertility: immunocontraception potential.”. Advances in contraceptive delivery systems : CDS (1012-8689), 10 (3-4), p. 279.

12)  Attardi, B.J., Hild, S.A. & Reel, J.R. Dimethandrolone undecanoate: a new potent orally active androgen with progestational activity. Endocrinology 147, 3016–3026 (2006)

13)  Chen, J., Hwang, D.J., Bohl, C.E., Miller, D.D. & Dalton, J.T. A selective androgen receptor modulator for hormonal male contraception. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 312, 546–553 (2005).

14)  Brady, BM, and RA Anderson (2002) “Advances in male contraception.” Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 11(3): 333-344.

15)  Christopher S. Cooper, Paul J. Perry, Amy E.T. Sparks, John H. MacIndoe, William R. Yates, Richard D. Williams. Effect of exogenous testosterone on prostate volume, serum and semen prostate specific antigen levels in healthy young men. The Journal of urology 1 February 1998 (volume 159 issue 2 Pages 441-443)

16) Guha, SK (2007) “Biophysical mechanism-mediated time-dependent effect on sperm of human and monkey vas implanted polyelectrolyte contraceptive.” Asian Journal of Andrology 9(2): 221-7

17) Sharma, U, K Chaudhury, NR Jagannathan and SK Guha (2001) “A proton NMR study of the effect of a new intravasal injectable male contraceptive RISUG on seminal plasma metabolites.” Reproduction 122(3): 431-6

18) Mishra, PK, B Manivannan, N Pathak, S Sriram, SS Bhande and S Panneerdoss (2003) “Status of spermatogenesis and sperm parameters in langur monkeys following long-term vas occlusion with styrene maleic anhydride.” Journal of Andrology 24(4): 501-9

19) Lohiya, NK, B Manivannan and PK Mishra (1998) “Ultrastructural changes in the spermatozoa of langur monkeys Presbytis entellus entellus after vas occlusion with styrene maleic anhydride.” Contraception 57(2): 125-32

20) Lohiya, NK, B Manivannan, PK Mishra, S Sriram, SS Bhande and S Panneerdoss (2005) “Preclinical evaluation for noninvasive reversal following long-term vas occlusion with styrene maleic anhydride in langur monkeys.” Contraception 71(3): 214-26

References for Pharmaceuticals:

“Activin and Inhibin.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 22 Feb 2011. Web. 19 Mar 2011. <;.

“Adjudin.” Male Contraceptives. International Male Contraception Coalition, 07 Oct 2010. Web. 20 Mar 2011. <;.

Benoff, Susan, GW Cooper, I Hurley, FS Mandel, and DL Rosenfeld. “The effect of calcium ion channel blockers on sperm fertilization.” PubMed. U.S. National Library of Medicine, Sep 1994. Web. Mar 24 2011. <;

Benoff, Susan. “United States Patent 5,994,086.” USPTO Patent Full-Text and Image Database. N.p., 30 Nov 1999. Web. Mar 22 2011. <;.

Connor, Steve. “Trials for alternative male Pill show no side-effects.” The Independent., 30 Oct 2006. Web. 25 Mar 2011. <;

Grima, Josephine, Bruno Silvestrini, and C. Yan Cheng. “Reversible Inhibition of Spermatogenesis in Rats Using a New Male Contraceptive, 1-(2,4-Dichlorobenzyl)-Indazole-3-Carbohydrazide.” Biology of Reproduction. 64.5 (2001): 1500-1508. Print.

Guo-Xin, Hu, Hu Lu-Feng, Yang Dai-Zheng, Li Jun-Wei, and Chen Guo-Rong. “Adjudin Targeting Rabbit Germ Cell Adhesion as a Male Contraceptive: A Pharmacokinetics Study.” Journal of Andrology. 30.1 (2009): 87-93. Print<;

Jones, Richard, and Kristen Lopez. Human Reproductive Biology. 3rd. Burlington, MA: Academic Press, 2006. Print.

Kanwar, U., R.J.K. Anand, and S.N. Sanyal. “The effect of nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker, on human spermatozoal functions.” Contraception 48. (1993): 453-470. Web. 17 Mar 2011.

“Nefidipine.” Male Contraceptives. INternational Male Contraception Coalition, 10 2009. Web. 20 Mar 2011. <;.

Mruk, Dolores. “New perspectives in non-hormonal male contraception.” Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism. 19.2 (2007): 57-64. Print

Mruk, Dolores, Ching-Hang Wong, Bruno Silversrini, and C Yan Cheng. “A male contraceptive targeting germ cell adhesion.” Nature. 12.11 (2006): 1323-1328. Print.

“‘Sperm-stopping’ male pill hope.” BBC News. BBC News, 30 Oct 2006. Web. 27 Mar 2011. <;.

United States. High Blood Pressure–Medicines to Help You. Silver Spring: Food and Drug Administration Office of Women’s Helath, 2011. Web. Mar 20 2011. <.;

References for Non-Hormonal

  1. Lue, Yahne, et al.  Triptolide: A Potential Male Contraceptive. Journal of Andrology, Vol. 19, No. 4.  American Society of Andrology, July/August 1998.
  2. Lopez, Lauren et al.  Nonhormonal Drugs for Contraception in Men: A Systematic Review. CME Review Article, Vol. 60, No. 11. Family Health International, 2005.
  3. Kamal, Raka et al.  Plants for Male Fertility Regulation. Phytoterapy Research. Wiley InterScience, 2003.
  4. Hikim, Amiya, et al.  Posttesticular antifertility action of triptolide in the male rat: evidence for severe impairment of cauda epididymal sperm ultrastructure. Journal of Andrology, Vol. 21, No. 3.  American Society of Andrology, May/June 2000.
  5. Bai, Jun-Ping, & Yu-Liang Shi.  Inhibition of Ca2+ channels in mouse spermatogenic cells by male antifertility compounds from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f. Contraception, 65, 441-445.  Elsevier, 2002.
  6. Page, Stephanie T., et al.  Advances in Male Contraception. Endocrine Reviews 29, 465-493.  The Endocrine Society, 2007.
  7. Mazaro, Renata, et al. Decrease in sperm number after treatment of rats with Austroplenckia populnea. Contraception 62, 45-50. Elsevier 2000.
  8. Huynh, Phuong et al.  Long-term Effects of Triptolide on Spermtogenesis, Epididymal Sperm Function, and Fertility in Male Rats. Journal of Andrology, Vol. 21, No. 5.  American Society of Andrology, September/October 2000.
  9. Anderson, R.A., & D.T. Baird.  Male Contraception. Endocrine Reviews 23, 735-762.  The Endocrine Society.
  10. Herdiman, J., et. al.  Male Contraception: Past, present, and future. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol 8., No. 26. Dept of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Royal London Hospital, London, UK, 2006.
  11. Zhen Qian, et al. Recent Progress in Research on Tripterygium: A Male Anti-fertility Plant. Contraception 51, 121-129. Elsevier Science Inc, New York, NY. 1995.

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